Figure 1. Ecosystem services include the basic support for life on Earth, the provisions people require, regulation of environmental conditions and mitigation of hazards, and the availability of non-material experiences or values. Adapted from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.
- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2003. Ecosystems and human well-being: a framework for assessment. Island Press, Washington DC.
- Kinzig, A., W.R. Burch, N.B. Grimm, P. Groffman, J.M. Grove, C.W. Martin, and R. Pouyat. 1999. Patch dynamics and ecosystem services: a cross-site comparison of Baltimore and Phoenix.
- Daily, G.C. 1997. Introduction: what are ecosystem services? Pages 1-10 in G.C. Daily, editor. Nature's services: societal dependence on natural ecosystems. Island Press, Washington DC.