28 June 2012

Chicago School


Definition: The Chicago School of urban ecology is in reality an approach to the sociology of cities.  The Chicago School grew out of the Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago in the first two decades of the 20th century.  It adopted its major ideas from biological ecology of the time, for which the University of Chicago and its downstate neighbor, the University of Illinois, were major seedbeds.  The growth of the city and the spatial patterns that resulted were interpreted as a kind of ecological succession, with waves of immigrant groups replacing one another, and establishing rings of structure around the central business district.  Competition among human communities was assumed to be a major driver of spatial differentiation across the city.

Example:



 
Figure 1.  An idealized, simple model of urban social structure based on the situation in Chicago, Illinois, in the early 20th century.  The loop is the local term for the central business district.  The shoreline of Lake Michigan is the wavy line running near the middle of the bullseye.  To the right of that line is the generalization of zonation derived from the idealized empirical experience in Chicago, shown on the left.  This model, though important for the establishment of ecological approaches to cities, has been found lacking by later generations of researchers.






Why important: The principals of the Chicago School were confronted by a city that was doubling in population and bringing people from overseas and the American South together in high density and novel mixture.  The Chicago professors were troubled by the abandonment of traditional or rural social norms with immigration, and with the social pathology they associated with urban life.  The spatial approach they founded acknowledges the importance of spatial patchiness in urban systems, but it was criticized for being too focused on group activities and not enough on individual behaviors.  While the Chicago School is labeled one of urban ecology, the ecological study of the city in the sense of biogeophysical science was not a part of the Chicago School.  Contemporary critiques of the ecology behind the Chicago School do not always recognize the difference between the biophysical ecology of the early 20th century, and the conceptual and empirical developments of that field that have emerged in the last several decades.

For more information:
  • Vasishth, A.S.H.W. and D.C. Sloane. 2002. Returning to ecology: an ecosystem approach to understanding the city. Pages 347-366 in M.J. Dear, editor. From Chicago to L.A.: making sense of urban theory. Sage Publishers, Thousand Oaks.
  • Gottdiener, M. and R. Hutchison. 2000. The new urban sociology. 2nd edition. McGraw Hill, New York.
  • Park, R.E. and E.W. Burgess. 1925. The city: suggestions for investigation of human behavior in the urban environment. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

13 comments:

  1. Do you need a loan to pay off your bill or in need of financial help with a loan you can contact us now for a loan if you are serious in getting it surely we will help you out via Email {urgentloan22@gmail.com}

    ReplyDelete
  2. My name is.Mrs.Juliet Quin. I live in Canada and i am a happy woman today? and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will refer any person that is looking for loan to him, he gave me happiness to me and my family, i was in need of a loan of $ 73,000.00 to start my life all over as i am a single mother with 3 kids I met this honest and GOD fearing man loan lender that help me with a loan of $ 73,000.00 Canada Dollar, he is a GOD fearing man, if you are in need of loan and you will pay back the loan please contact him tell him that is Mrs.Juliet Quin that refer you to him. Contact Dr Purva Pius via email: reply to email (urgentloan22@gmail.com)

    ReplyDelete
  3. Do you need a loan to pay off your bill or in need of financial help with a loan you can contact us now for a loan if you are serious in getting it surely we will help you out via Email {urgentloan22@gmail.com}

    ReplyDelete
  4. Are you in need of a loan? Do you want to pay off your bills? Do you want to be financially stable? All you have to do is to contact us for more information on how to get started and get the loan you desire. This offer is open to all that will be able to repay back in due time. Note-that repayment time frame is negotiable and at interest rate of 3% just email us (urgentloan22@gmail.com)

    ReplyDelete
  5. Do you need a loan to pay off your bill or in need of financial help with a loan you can contact us now for a loan if you are serious in getting it surely we will help you out via Email {urgentloan22@gmail.com}

    ReplyDelete
  6. Hello Sir / Madam,

    Do you need a credit/financial help for your business, mortgage, rent, personal loan, loan for a car or buy a house or even tuition fee for your child? We offer funding at a very low interest rate of 2.5%. All interested Applicants are to contact us via email; vdaniels0007@gmail.com with the below information.

    LOAN APPLICATION FORM [Fill and Return]

    1. Full Names:------
    2. Country:-----------
    3. State:---------------
    4. Contact Address:-------
    5. Loan Amount Needed:------
    6. Duration of the Loan--------
    7. Monthly Income:----------------
    8. Direct Telephone Number:-----------
    Have you applied for loan online before (yes or no)

    EMAIL: [vdaniels0007@gmail.com]
    Best Regards.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Bolavita Adalah Agen Taruhan Online yang sudah lama berdiri dan sangat terpercaya di indonesia !

    Untuk data anda Di Jamin Aman, Dan untuk Transaksi di Jamin Cepat ! Anda pasti akan Nyaman Bermain Di BOLAVITA !
    Karena Dengan Pelayanannya yang sangat ramah,Cepat dan Aman membuat Agen Bolavita bisa berdiri sampai saat ini dan sangat populer di kalangan masyarakat Indonesia !

    Bandar Judi Sabung Ayam Online !!! Bonus Cashback 10% <<< KLIK

    Bandar Bola Online !!! Bonus New Member 10% <<< KLIK

    Bandar Casino Online !!! Bonus Rollingan 0.7% <<< KLIK

    Bandar Togel !!! Bonus Discon Taruhan 66% <<< KLIK

    Bandar Bola Tangkas Online !!! Bonus Rollingan 0.7% <<< KLIK

    BBM : D1A1E6DF / D8DB1C57 / BOLAVITA
    wechat : bolavita
    line : cs_bolavita
    whatup : 6281377055002
    Live Chat : www.bolavita.org

    ReplyDelete
  8. No matter how old you are, family history is important. While you might not think so at the time, as you get older there will be things you and your grandchildren will want to know. Most of us don't realise it until the older generations are gone and you can't replace first hand comments. Don't just put in about the good times, add in the harder times and how you overcame those trials. Another thing to remember is what caused the deaths of those you loved. There are many things that have been found to continue into future generations that knowing it runs in the family can be helped with now or possible in the future. prevention starts with knowing where to start. I wish someone had taken the time to write these things down for mew to be able to go back to. My Grandmother and my mother told us many stories of what things happened in their lives and about the people in their lives. I now wish someone had written those things down since both have passed now. But I never thought at that busy point in my life that I would one day want to remember all those things. So much family history is lost when the older generations are gone. Please pass it on to your family while you can. You can even just do it digitally so it can be accessed by family later on.Family pictures are something to cherish also. Just be sure to write down who is pictured in them, where they are taken and when. I have found family pictures that no one now even knows who is in them.

    AKHERETEMPLE@gmail.com
    or
    call/whatsapp:+2349057261346

    ReplyDelete
  9. GOOD DAY AND WELCOME TO STANDARD ONLINE FINANCE LTD
    Do you need 100% Finance? I can fix your financial needs with a lower back problem of 3% interest rate. Whatever your circumstances, self employed, retired, have a poor credit rating, we could help. flexible repayment, Contact us at: standardonlineinvestment@gmail.com

    Apply now for all types of loans and get money urgently!
    * The interest rate is 3%
    * Choose between 1 and 30 years of repayment.
    * Choose between monthly and annual repayment plan.
    * Terms and conditions of the flexibility of loans.

    Regards,
    Mr. Abdul Muqse

    ReplyDelete
  10. Hello Everybody,
    My name is Mrs Sharon Sim. I live in Singapore and i am a happy woman today? and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will refer any person that is looking for loan to him, he gave me happiness to me and my family, i was in need of a loan of $250,000.00 to start my life all over as i am a single mother with 3 kids I met this honest and GOD fearing man loan lender that help me with a loan of $250,000.00 SG. Dollar, he is a GOD fearing man, if you are in need of loan and you will pay back the loan please contact him tell him that is Mrs Sharon, that refer you to him. contact Dr Purva Pius, call/whats-App Contact Number +918929509036 via email:(urgentloan22@gmail.com) Thank you.

    ReplyDelete

  11. Do you need an urgent blank ATM CARD to solve your financial needs and i just want to tell the world my experience with everyone. i discovered a hacking guy called Mike. he is really good at what he is doing, i inquired about the BLANK ATM CARD. if it works or even Exist, then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to their terms and conditions. three days later i received my card and tried it with the closest ATM machine close to me, to my greatest surprise it worked like magic. i was able to withdraw up to $4000. This was unbelievable and the happiest day of my life. there is no ATM MACHINES this BLANK ATM CARD CANNOT penetrate into it because it have been programmed with various tools and software. i just felt this might help those of us in need of financial stability. The card have really change my life. if you want to contact them, HERE is the email: blankatm156@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete