22 April 2013


A centralized city, expressing concentrated political power, and adequately supported by local revenues based on an industrial or colonial economy, receiving resources and migrants from a vast hinterland or sphere of influence.  Metropolises were sometimes connected in linear arrays, such as that recognized in the Northeastern United states by Jean Gottman in 1961 as a megalopolis.

London was the metropolis not only of the United Kingdom, but also of the British Empire.  New York is a metropolis based on finance and formerly on industry.  Baltimore as a metropolis was an industrial powerhouse in the first half of the 20th century. 

Why Important:
The metropolis was the leading form of urbanization throughout the industrial and global imperial eras.  Although the term is sometimes still used to represent spatially broad urban regions, consisting of cities, suburbs, and exurbs, most metropolises have been altered in form since their heyday (Fig. 1). 

Figure 1. Metropolitan areas of the United States in 1950.  These dense urban areas lacked sprawling suburbs, and were highly centralized areas, mostly driven by industrial economies.  Connections between metropolitan areas was primarily by rail, and the intervening regions were agricultural, range, or wild lands.

Spatial diffusion resulting from the growth of private automobile transport, subsidies for dispersed housing and highway development, and lifestyle choices favoring suburbanization, and a diffusion of power and economic activity in space have all diluted the role of central cities that had formerly been identified as metropolises.   Furthermore, large cities now emerging or evolving in Asia and Africa may not exhibit a classic metropolis form, but establish new patterns of development.

For more information:
·         Borchert, J. R. 1967. American metropolitan evolution. Geographical Review 57:301-332.
·         Cronon, W. 1991. Nature's metropolis: Chicago and the great west. Norton, New York.
·         Gottmann, J. 1961. Megalopolis: the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the United States. The Twentieth Century Fund, New York.
·         Shane, D. G. 2011. Urban design since 1945 -- a global perspective. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester UK.
·         Sterns, M. A. and W. M. Marsh. 1997. Editor's introduction. The decentered city: edge cities and the expanding metropolis. Landscape and Urban Planning 15:39-58.


  1. Testimony on how i got my LOAN from fundingloanplc@yahoo.com

    I'm Isabella Tyson from 1910 N Halsted St Unit 3, Chicago IL60614 USA,, i have been searching for a genuine loan company for the past few months and all i got was bunch of scams who made me to trust them and at the end of the day took my money without giving anything in return, all hope was lost i got confused and frustrated, i find it very difficult to feed my family and vowed never to have anything to do with loan companies on net and went to seek of assistance from a very good friend which i explained all my experience regarding online companies with and said he can help me that he knows of a Godsent and well known company called FUNDING CIRCLE PLC, he stated he just got a loan from them although i was still very unsure about this company due to my past experience but i decided to give it a try and did as i was directed by my friend and applied, i never believed but i tried and to my greatest surprise i received my loan in my bank account within 24 hours, i could not believe that i would stand on my feet financially again. I’m glad I took the risk and applied for the loan and today i'm thanking God that such loan companies still exist and promise to share the good news to people who are in need of financial assistance because the rate of scams on net is getting very serious and i don't want people to fall victim when we still have genuine and Godsent lenders.. You can contact this Godsent company using the information as stated and be a partaker of this great testimony.. Email: fundingloanplc@yahoo.com OR Call/Text +14067326622 thanks


  2. Do you need a financial help? Are you in any financial crisis or do you need funds to start up your own business? Do you need funds to settle your debt or pay off your bills or start a good business? Do you have a low credit score and you are finding it hard to obtain capital services from local banks and other financial institutes? Here is your chance to obtain a financial services from our company. We offer the following finance to individuals
    *Commercial finance
    *Personal finance
    *Business finance
    *Construction finance
    *Business finance And many More:
    and many more at 3% interest rate;
    Contact Us Via Email:bullsindia182@gmail.

  3. BETTERMENT FUNDING {bettermentfunding@gmail.com}Hi everyone, i am Alexis Ohanian am so glade coming back to this great forum to testify about the help i received from Chester Brian. I was in desperate need of a loan in other to be free from debt and financial bondage that was place on me by my ex husband. It was really bad that i have to seek for help from Friends,family and even my bank but on one could assist me because my credit score was really bad. So i was browsing with my computer and saw some testimonies from people Chester Brian assisted with a loan, then i decided to contact him on his email {bettermentfunding@gmail.com}, then i received a mail from them and i did all that was asked from me. To my greatest surprise they transferred to my account the loan i requested and now i am so happy clearing my debt and have also started a business with the remaining amount to take care of myself and family. If you need a loan do contact the best loan lender of all time Chester Brian on his email: {bettermentfunding@gmail.com}