22 April 2013

Metropolis



Definition:
A centralized city, expressing concentrated political power, and adequately supported by local revenues based on an industrial or colonial economy, receiving resources and migrants from a vast hinterland or sphere of influence.  Metropolises were sometimes connected in linear arrays, such as that recognized in the Northeastern United states by Jean Gottman in 1961 as a megalopolis.

Examples:
London was the metropolis not only of the United Kingdom, but also of the British Empire.  New York is a metropolis based on finance and formerly on industry.  Baltimore as a metropolis was an industrial powerhouse in the first half of the 20th century. 


Why Important:
The metropolis was the leading form of urbanization throughout the industrial and global imperial eras.  Although the term is sometimes still used to represent spatially broad urban regions, consisting of cities, suburbs, and exurbs, most metropolises have been altered in form since their heyday (Fig. 1). 




Figure 1. Metropolitan areas of the United States in 1950.  These dense urban areas lacked sprawling suburbs, and were highly centralized areas, mostly driven by industrial economies.  Connections between metropolitan areas was primarily by rail, and the intervening regions were agricultural, range, or wild lands.




Spatial diffusion resulting from the growth of private automobile transport, subsidies for dispersed housing and highway development, and lifestyle choices favoring suburbanization, and a diffusion of power and economic activity in space have all diluted the role of central cities that had formerly been identified as metropolises.   Furthermore, large cities now emerging or evolving in Asia and Africa may not exhibit a classic metropolis form, but establish new patterns of development.

For more information:
·         Borchert, J. R. 1967. American metropolitan evolution. Geographical Review 57:301-332.
·         Cronon, W. 1991. Nature's metropolis: Chicago and the great west. Norton, New York.
·         Gottmann, J. 1961. Megalopolis: the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the United States. The Twentieth Century Fund, New York.
·         Shane, D. G. 2011. Urban design since 1945 -- a global perspective. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester UK.
·         Sterns, M. A. and W. M. Marsh. 1997. Editor's introduction. The decentered city: edge cities and the expanding metropolis. Landscape and Urban Planning 15:39-58.

14 comments:

  1. Testimony on how i got my LOAN from fundingloanplc@yahoo.com

    I'm Isabella Tyson from 1910 N Halsted St Unit 3, Chicago IL60614 USA,, i have been searching for a genuine loan company for the past few months and all i got was bunch of scams who made me to trust them and at the end of the day took my money without giving anything in return, all hope was lost i got confused and frustrated, i find it very difficult to feed my family and vowed never to have anything to do with loan companies on net and went to seek of assistance from a very good friend which i explained all my experience regarding online companies with and said he can help me that he knows of a Godsent and well known company called FUNDING CIRCLE PLC, he stated he just got a loan from them although i was still very unsure about this company due to my past experience but i decided to give it a try and did as i was directed by my friend and applied, i never believed but i tried and to my greatest surprise i received my loan in my bank account within 24 hours, i could not believe that i would stand on my feet financially again. I’m glad I took the risk and applied for the loan and today i'm thanking God that such loan companies still exist and promise to share the good news to people who are in need of financial assistance because the rate of scams on net is getting very serious and i don't want people to fall victim when we still have genuine and Godsent lenders.. You can contact this Godsent company using the information as stated and be a partaker of this great testimony.. Email: fundingloanplc@yahoo.com OR Call/Text +14067326622 thanks


    ReplyDelete

  2. Do you need a financial help? Are you in any financial crisis or do you need funds to start up your own business? Do you need funds to settle your debt or pay off your bills or start a good business? Do you have a low credit score and you are finding it hard to obtain capital services from local banks and other financial institutes? Here is your chance to obtain a financial services from our company. We offer the following finance to individuals
    *Commercial finance
    *Personal finance
    *Business finance
    *Construction finance
    *Business finance And many More:
    and many more at 3% interest rate;
    Contact Us Via Email:bullsindia182@gmail.

    ReplyDelete
  3. BETTERMENT FUNDING {bettermentfunding@gmail.com}Hi everyone, i am Alexis Ohanian am so glade coming back to this great forum to testify about the help i received from Chester Brian. I was in desperate need of a loan in other to be free from debt and financial bondage that was place on me by my ex husband. It was really bad that i have to seek for help from Friends,family and even my bank but on one could assist me because my credit score was really bad. So i was browsing with my computer and saw some testimonies from people Chester Brian assisted with a loan, then i decided to contact him on his email {bettermentfunding@gmail.com}, then i received a mail from them and i did all that was asked from me. To my greatest surprise they transferred to my account the loan i requested and now i am so happy clearing my debt and have also started a business with the remaining amount to take care of myself and family. If you need a loan do contact the best loan lender of all time Chester Brian on his email: {bettermentfunding@gmail.com}

    ReplyDelete
  4. God Bless Edward Jones Loans for Helping Me In Time Of Need {Jonesloanfinance@yahoo.com}

    Good Day I am Vanessa Cowen from California and i have a broken up business, until i found this company who help me to gain a loan for business, and now i want to used this short medium to congratulate the company for the fast and safe funds they loan to me without any form of delay, i loan 180,000.00USD from the company at a very low interest rate of 2% to save my business and lots more. i first saw their mail on the internet, everyone always give testimony for what they did, so i quickly contacted them and they all did everything for me without stress and my funds was sent to my account within 24hrs, i was surprise and feel glad, now i now have a standard business control agent who help me, now i will advice those who need urgent loan to contact them now via email : {jonesloanfinance@yahoo.com} OR Text him +1(307) 217-5388..

    ReplyDelete
  5. God Bless Edward Jones Loans for Helping Me In Time Of Need {Jonesloanfinance@yahoo.com}

    Good Day I am Vanessa Cowen from California and i have a broken up business, until i found this company who help me to gain a loan for business, and now i want to used this short medium to congratulate the company for the fast and safe funds they loan to me without any form of delay, i loan 180,000.00USD from the company at a very low interest rate of 2% to save my business and lots more. i first saw their mail on the internet, everyone always give testimony for what they did, so i quickly contacted them and they all did everything for me without stress and my funds was sent to my account within 24hrs, i was surprise and feel glad, now i now have a standard business control agent who help me, now i will advice those who need urgent loan to contact them now via email : {jonesloanfinance@yahoo.com} OR Text him +1(307) 217-5388..

    ReplyDelete
  6. Treg Finance Limited deliver personal loans/business loans/trade finance/import & export loans/project loans to companies of all sizes ranging from individuals, companies and trader's globally.

    *Commercial Loans.
    *Personal Loans.
    *Business Loans.
    *Investments Loans.
    *Development Loans.
    *Acquisition Loans .
    *Construction loans.
    *Credit Card Clearance Loan
    *Debt Consolidation Loan
    *Project Loans And many More.

    | Business Cash Loan? | Unsecured Loan | Fast and Simple Loan? | Quick Application Process? | Approvals within 24-72 Hours? | No Hidden Fees Loan? | Funding in less than 1 Week? | Get unsecured working capital? Contact us today via |Whatsapp: +44 7757-109446| |Email: info@tregfinance.net|


    Treg Finance Company Limited
    Website: https://www.tregfinance.net/
    Email: info@tregfinance.net
    Whatsapp: +44 7757-109446
    Skype id: treg.finance@outlook.com
    201 Bishopsgate, London, EC2M 3AE
    Company Registration No. 02587815

    ReplyDelete
  7. Treg Finance Limited deliver personal loans/business loans/trade finance/import & export loans/project loans to companies of all sizes ranging from individuals, companies and trader's globally.

    *Commercial Loans.
    *Personal Loans.
    *Business Loans.
    *Investments Loans.
    *Development Loans.
    *Acquisition Loans .
    *Construction loans.
    *Credit Card Clearance Loan
    *Debt Consolidation Loan
    *Project Loans And many More.

    | Business Cash Loan? | Unsecured Loan | Fast and Simple Loan? | Quick Application Process? | Approvals within 24-72 Hours? | No Hidden Fees Loan? | Funding in less than 1 Week? | Get unsecured working capital? Contact us today via |Whatsapp: +44 7757-109446| |Email: info@tregfinance.net|


    Treg Finance Company Limited
    Website: https://www.tregfinance.net/
    Email: info@tregfinance.net
    Whatsapp: +44 7757-109446
    Skype id: treg.finance@outlook.com
    201 Bishopsgate, London, EC2M 3AE
    Company Registration No. 02587815

    ReplyDelete
  8. Treg Finance Limited deliver personal loans/business loans/trade finance/import & export loans/project loans to companies of all sizes ranging from individuals, companies and trader's globally.

    *Commercial Loans.
    *Personal Loans.
    *Business Loans.
    *Investments Loans.
    *Development Loans.
    *Acquisition Loans .
    *Construction loans.
    *Credit Card Clearance Loan
    *Debt Consolidation Loan
    *Project Loans And many More.

    | Business Cash Loan? | Unsecured Loan | Fast and Simple Loan? | Quick Application Process? | Approvals within 24-72 Hours? | No Hidden Fees Loan? | Funding in less than 1 Week? | Get unsecured working capital? Contact us today via |Whatsapp: +44 7757-109446| |Email: info@tregfinance.net|


    Treg Finance Company Limited
    Website: https://www.tregfinance.net/
    Email: info@tregfinance.net
    Whatsapp: +44 7757-109446
    Skype id: treg.finance@outlook.com
    201 Bishopsgate, London, EC2M 3AE
    Company Registration No. 02587815

    ReplyDelete
  9. No matter how old you are, family history is important. While you might not think so at the time, as you get older there will be things you and your grandchildren will want to know. Most of us don't realise it until the older generations are gone and you can't replace first hand comments. Don't just put in about the good times, add in the harder times and how you overcame those trials. Another thing to remember is what caused the deaths of those you loved. There are many things that have been found to continue into future generations that knowing it runs in the family can be helped with now or possible in the future. prevention starts with knowing where to start. I wish someone had taken the time to write these things down for mew to be able to go back to. My Grandmother and my mother told us many stories of what things happened in their lives and about the people in their lives. I now wish someone had written those things down since both have passed now. But I never thought at that busy point in my life that I would one day want to remember all those things. So much family history is lost when the older generations are gone. Please pass it on to your family while you can. You can even just do it digitally so it can be accessed by family later on.Family pictures are something to cherish also. Just be sure to write down who is pictured in them, where they are taken and when. I have found family pictures that no one now even knows who is in them.

    AKHERETEMPLE@gmail.com
    or
    call/whatsapp:+2349057261346

    ReplyDelete
  10. We are direct providers of Fresh Cut BG, SBLC and MTN which are specifically for lease, our bank instrument can be engage in PPP Trading, Discounting, signature project (s) such as Aviation, Agriculture, Petroleum, Telecommunication, construction of Dams, Bridges, Real Estate and all kind of projects. We do not have any broker chain in our offer or get involved in chauffer driven offers.

    We deliver with time and precision as sethforth in the agreement. Our terms and Conditions are reasonable, below is our instrument description.

    The procedure is very simple; the instrument will be reserved on euro clear to be verified by your bank, after verification an arrangement will be made for necessary bank documents and stock testing expenses, the cost of the Bank Guarantee will be paid after the delivery of the MT760,

    DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS:

    1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG/SBLC) (Appendix A)
    2. Total Face Value: Eur 5M MIN and Eur 10B MAX (Ten Billion USD).
    3. Issuing Bank: HSBC Bank London, Credit Suisse and Deutsche Bank Frankfurt.
    4. Age: One Year, One Month
    5. Leasing Price: 6% of Face Value plus 2% commission fees to brokers.
    6. Delivery: Bank to Bank swift.
    7. Payment: MT-103 or MT760
    8. Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days.

    We are ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days, if interested do not hesitate to contact me direct. wrightjames931@gmail.com

    Regards,
    Wright
    Skype;
    wrightjames931@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete

  11. Do you need a financial help? Are you in any financial crisis or do you need funds to start up your own business? Do you need funds to settle your debt or pay off your bills or start a good business? Do you have a low credit score and you are finding it hard to obtain capital services from local banks and other financial institutes? Here is your chance to obtain a financial services from our company. We offer the following finance to individuals-
    *Commercial finance
    *Personal finance
    *Business finance
    *Construction finance
    *Business finance And many More:
    and many more at 2% interest rate;
    Contact Us Via Email:bullsindia187@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  12. We offer certified and verifiable bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable of taking up time bound transactions.

    BANK INSTRUMENT PARTICULARS

    Instruments :Fully Cash Backed, Fresh Cut Bank Guarantee(Standard ICC format)
    Age :One (1) years and One (1) day
    Rate :Leasing: 3+2, Purchase: 32+2
    Currency :USD/Euro
    Bank :Top A Rated banks
    Amount :As Advised by Beneficiary
    Intermediary Fees : Two Percent (2%) of Face Value payable by Beneficiary
    Tranches : As per agreed tranches schedule
    Delivery : Swift MT799/MT760
    Payment : Swift MT103 (Wire Transfer)

    Contact Name: Alex James
    Email:signetukfinanceplc@gmail.com
    Skype ID:signetukfinanceplc

    ReplyDelete
  13. Are you an individual businessman or a business organisation that wishes to expand in business ??, we offer financial instrument such as BGs, SBLCs,MTNs, LCs, CDs and others on lease and sales at a rate of 4%+2% of the face value and reasonable conditionfrom a genuine provider. You are at liberty to engage our leased facilities into trade programs as well as in signatory project(s) such as Aviation, Agriculture, Petroleum, Telecommunication and any other project(s) etc.

    Contact : Mr. Raymond Doison
    Contact Email: crusaderbroker.bgassurance@gmail.com
    skype:crusaderbroker.bgassurance
    Whatsapp : +380 50 922 4887

    With our financial/bank instrument you can establish line of credit with your bank and/or secure loan for your projects in which our bank instrument will serve collateral in your bank to fund your project.

    We deliver with time and precision as set forth in the agreement. Our terms and Conditions are reasonable and we work directly with issuing bank lease providers, this instrument can be monetized on your behalf for upto 100% funding. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved.

    All relevant business information will be provided upon request.

    BROKERS ARE WELCOME & 100% PROTECTED!!!

    If Interested kindly contact me via

    Email:~ crusaderbroker.bgassurance@gmail.com

    Skype ID:crusaderbroker.bgassurance

    serious enquiry only.

    Genuine Provider for BG/SBLC(Bank Guarantee/Standby Letter of Credit)
    I am Direct Provider's Mandate of BG & SBLC Lease 100% protected.

    ReplyDelete
  14. We are major/Direct providers of Fresh Cut BG, SBLC, POF, MTN, Bonds and CDs and this financial instruments are specifically for lease and sale.We are one of the leading Financial instrument providers with offices all over Europe.
    We are major/Direct providers of Fresh Cut BG, SBLC, POF, MTN, Bonds and CDs and this financial instruments are specifically for lease and sale.We are one of the leading Financial instrument providers with offices all over Europe.
    we always deliver on time and precision as Set forth in the agreement. You are at liberty to engage our leased facilities into trade programs, project financing, Credit line enhancement, Corporate Loans (Business Start-up Loans or Business Expansion Loans), Equipment Procurement Loans (Industrial Equipment, Air crafts, Ships, etc.) as well as other financial instruments issued from AAA Rated bank such as HSBC Bank Hong Kong, HSBC Bank London, Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt, Barclays Bank , Standard Chartered Bank and others on lease at the lowest available rates depending on the face value of the instrument needed, Our Terms and Conditions are reasonable.

    DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS:
    1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG)/SBLC (Appendix A)
    2. Total Face Value: 10M MIN to 50B MAX USD or Euro
    3. Issuing Bank: HSBC, Deutsche Bank Frankfurt, UBS or any Top 25 .
    4. Age: One Year, One Day
    5. Leasing Price: 4 1%
    6. Sale Price: 32 2%
    7. Delivery by SWIFT .
    8. Payment: MT103-23
    9. Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days

    We are ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days, if interested do not hesitate to contact me direct.

    Name:May Gary
    Email:algecoglobalfinanceplc@gmail.com
    Skype::algecoglobalfinanceplc

    ReplyDelete